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A. Packages

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Packages are Common Lisp's way of grouping code into modules. Early dialects of Lisp contained a symbol-table, called the oblist, which listed all the symbols read so far by the system. Through a symbol's entry on the oblist, the system had access to things like its value and its property list. A symbol listed in the oblist was said to be interned.

Recent dialects of Lisp have split the concept of the oblist into multiple packages. Now a symbol is not merely interned, but interned in a particular package. Packages support modularity because symbols interned in one package are only accessible in other packages (except by cheating) if they are explicitly declared to be so.

A package is a kind of Lisp object. The current package is always stored in the global variable *package*. When Common Lisp starts up, the current package will be the user package: either user (in CLTL1 implementations), or common-lisp-user (in CLTL2 implementations).

Packages are usually identified by their names, which are strings. To find the name of the current package, try:

 
> (package-name *package*)
"COMMON-LISP-USER"

Usually a symbol is interned in the package that was current at the time it was read. To find the package in which a symbol is interned, we can use symbol-package:

 
> (symbol-package 'foo)
#<Package "COMMON-LISP-USER" 4CD15E>
381

The return value here is the actual package object. For future use, let's give foo a value:

 
> (setq foo 99)
99

By calling in-package we can switch to a new package, creating it if necessary:(40)

 
> (in-package 'mine :use 'common-lisp)
#<Package "MINE" 63390E>

At this point there should be eerie music, because we are in a different world: foo here is not what it used to be.

 
MINE> foo
>>Error: FOO has no global value.

Why did this happen? Because the foo we set to 99 above is a distinct symbol from foo here in mine.(41) To refer to the original foo from outside the user package, we must prefix the package name and two colons:

 
MINE> common-lisp-user::foo
99

So different symbols with the same print-name can coexist in different packages. There can be one foo in package common-lisp-user and another foo in package mine, and they will be distinct symbols. In fact, that's partly the point of packages: if you're writing your program in a separate package, you can choose names for your functions and variables without worrying that someone will use the same name for something else. Even if they use the same name, it won't be the same symbol.

Packages also provide a means of information-hiding. Programs must refer to functions and variables by their names. If you don't make a given name available outside your package, it becomes unlikely that code in another package will be able to use or modify what it refers to.

In programs it's usually bad style to use package prefixes with double colons. By doing so you are violating the modularity that packages are supposed to provide. If you have to use a double colon to refer to a symbol, it's because someone didn't want you to.

Usually one should only refer to symbols which have been exported. By exporting a symbol from the package in which it is interned, we cause it to be visible to other packages. To export a symbol we call (you guessed it) export:

 
MINE> (in-package 'common-lisp-user)
#<Package "COMMON-LISP-USER" 4CD15E>
> (export 'bar)
T
> (setq bar 5)
5

Now when we return to mine, we can refer to bar with only a single colon, because it is a publicly available name:

 
> (in-package 'mine)
#<Package "MINE" 63390E>
MINE> common-lisp-user:bar
5

By importing bar into mine we can go one step further, and make mine actually share the symbol bar with the user package:

 
MINE> (import 'common-lisp-user:bar)
T
MINE> bar
5

After importing bar we can refer to it without any package qualifier at all. The two packages now share the same symbol; there can't be a distinct mine:bar.

What if there already was one? In that case, the call to import would have caused an error, as we see if we try to import foo:

 
MINE> (import 'common-lisp-user::foo)
>>Error: FOO is already present in MINE.

Before, when we tried unsuccessfully to evaluate foo in mine, we thereby caused a symbol foo to be interned there. It had no global value and therefore generated an error, but the interning happened simply as a consequence of typing its name. So now when we try to import foo into mine, there is already a symbol there with the same name.

We can also import symbols en masse by defining one package to use another:

 
MINE> (use-package 'common-lisp-user)
T

Now all symbols exported by the user package will automatically be imported by mine. (If foo had been exported by the user package, this call would also have generated an error.)

As of CLTL2, the package containing the names of built-in operators and variables is called common-lisp instead of lisp, and new packages no longer use it by default. Since we used this package in the call to in-package which created mine, all of Common Lisp's names will be visible here:

 
MINE> #'cons
#<Compiled-Function CONS 462A3E>

You're practically compelled to make any new package use common-lisp (or some other package containing Lisp operators). Otherwise you wouldn't even be able to get out of the new package.

As with compilation, operations on packages are not usually done at the toplevel like this. More often the calls are contained in source files. Generally it will suffice to begin a file with an in-package and a defpackage. (The defpackage macro is new in CLTL2, but some older implementations provide it.) Here is what you might put at the top of a file containing a distinct package of code:

 
(in-package 'my-application :use 'common-lisp)

(defpackage my-application
  (:use common-lisp my-utilities)
  (:nicknames app)
  (:export win lose draw))

This will cause the code in the file--or more precisely, the names in the file--to be in the package my-application. As well as common-lisp, this package uses my-utilities, so any symbols exported thence can appear without any package prefix in the file.

The my-application package itself exports just three symbols: win, lose, and draw. Since the call to in-package gave my-application the nickname app, code in other packages will be able to refer to them as e.g. app:win.

The kind of modularity provided by packages is actually a bit odd. We have modules not of objects, but of names. Every package that uses common-lisp imports the name cons, because common-lisp includes a function with that name. But in consequence a variable called cons would also be visible every package that used common-lisp. And the same thing goes for Common Lisp's other name-spaces. If packages are confusing, this is the main reason why; they're not based on objects, but on names.

Things having to do with packages tend to happen at read-time, not runtime, which can lead to some confusion. The second expression we typed:

 
(symbol-package 'foo)

returned the value it did because reading the query created the answer. To evaluate this expression, Lisp had to read it, which meant interning foo.

As another example, consider this exchange, which appeared above:

 
MINE> (in-package 'common-lisp-user)
#<Package "COMMON-LISP-USER" 4CD15E>
> (export 'bar)

Usually two expressions typed into the toplevel are equivalent to the same two expressions enclosed within a single progn. Not in this case. If we try saying

 
MINE> (progn (in-package 'common-lisp-user)
(export 'bar))
>>Error: MINE::BAR is not accessible in COMMON-LISP-USER.

we get an error instead. This happens because the whole progn expression is processed by read before being evaluated. When read is called, the current package is mine, so bar is taken to be mine:bar. It is as if we had asked to export this symbol, instead of common-lisp-user:bar, from the user package.

The way packages are defined makes it a nuisance to write programs which use symbols as data. For example, if we define noise as follows:

 
(in-package 'other :use 'common-lisp)

(defpackage other
  (:use common-lisp)
  (:export noise))

(defun noise (animal)
  (case animal
    (dog 'woof)
    (cat 'meow)
    (pig 'oink)))

then if we call noise from another package with an unqualified symbol as an argument, it will usually fall off the end of the case clauses and return nil:

 
OTHER> (in-package 'common-lisp-user)
#<Package "COMMON-LISP-USER" 4CD15E>
> (other:noise 'pig)
NIL

That's because what we passed as an argument was common-lisp-user:pig(no offense intended), while the case key is other:pig. To make noise work as one would expect, we would have to export all six symbols used within it, and import them into any package from which we intended to call noise.

In this case, we could evade the problem by using keywords instead of ordinary symbols. If noise had been defined

 
(defun noise (animal)
  (case animal
    (:dog :woof)
    (:cat :meow)
    (:pig :oink)))

then we could safely call it from any package:

 
OTHER> (in-package 'common-lisp-user)
#<Package "COMMON-LISP-USER" 4CD15E>
> (other:noise :pig)
:OINK

Keywords are like gold: universal and self-evaluating. They are visible everywhere, and they never have to be quoted. A symbol-driven function like defanaph (page 223) should nearly always be written to use keywords.

Packages are a rich source of confusion. This introduction to the subject has barely scratched the surface. For all the details, see CLTL2, Chapter 11.


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